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Administrative Systems Training   /  General Ledger Account Structure

General Ledger Account Structure: GL Accounting Key

General Ledger transactions are posted to an Accounting Key. This accounting key consists of the Account String and the Object Code. Each of its six segments capture a different element (who, what, where, when, and how) of the transaction.


General Ledger Accounting Key

In the General Ledger, transactions are posted to an "Accounting Key", consisting of six segments: Account (ACCT), Subaccount (SUB), Balancing (BAL), Organization (ORG), Future (FUT), and Object Code (OBJ). The first five segments are known as the "Account String". Therefore, an Accounting Key is comprised of an Account String plus an Object Code.

The first five segments of the accounting key are also referred to as the account string or the ASBOF (Account, Subaccount, Balancing, Organization, and Future) - that is, the first five segments without the object code. The remaining segment is the Object Code.

Note: When writing the accounting key, a decimal separates each segment of the accounting key.

Below is an example of the new GL Accounting Key:

To assist in entry of the accounting key in Oracle, you will frequently see a screen similar to the one below. There are lists of values (LOVs) available for each field to aid in the search process. As you select each segment from the LOV or type each segment directly into the field, a description of that segment will appear to the right of the number selected. In this format, the decimals between each segment are implied so that you do not have to type them.

More specific information on the six Accounting Key segments is detailed below.

 

General Ledger Account Structure: GL Account (ACCT) Segment

The Account (ACCT) segment is the first segment of the GL accounting key. The Account segment consists of seven numeric digits and identifies the primary activity for which money is being spent.



The first digit of this seven-digit segment is earmarked to represent specific types of account strings.

Important Note: Account segments starting with 6, 8, or 9 are GA/GL Recap accounts.

Account Segments    
Balance sheets

Identify a primary activity of...

     0xxxxxx

Balance sheets, University and Hospital

 

Account Segments

Income statements

Identify a primary activity of...

1xxxxxx

University revenue-only income statements

2xxxxxx

University expenses-only income statements

3xxxxxx

University mixed revenue/expenses income statements

4xxxxxx

University - reserved for future mixed revenue/expenses income statements

5xxxxxx

University mixed revenue/expenses income statements

6xxxxxx

GA Plant project GA/GL Recap income statements

7xxxxxx

Hospital revenue/expenses income statements

8xxxxxx

GA Grant-Related Income, Mandatory Cost Sharing, and Student Financial Aid GA/GL Recap income statements

9xxxxxx

GA sponsored grant projects GA/GL Recap income statements

There is no further blocking for University Account segment values. UAB Financial Affairs utilizes the Oracle processes to assign all University Account values in sequential order within each prefix (i.e., except for the first digit, there is no blocking for University Account values).

Account Segment (Hospital)

In addition to the institution-wide standard one-digit prefix, the Hospital will also utilize the second and third digits of the Account segment to further define the type of accounting activity as follows:

To ensure the integrity of their internal blocking, Hospital Finance assigns all Hospital Account values. There is no range blocking in the remaining digits of the Account segment.

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General Ledger Account Structure: GL Subaccount (SUB) Segment

The second segment of the new GL accounting key is the Subaccount (SUB) segment. The Subaccount segment consists of three numeric digits and is used to further track activities, tasks or time periods within its specified account.

Subaccount reflects a breakdown of the Account activity and is, therefore, dependent on the Account segment. The Account segment of the GL accounting key, along with its dependent Subaccount segment, uniquely identifies an active GL income statement account string.

With the exception of some Subaccount segment values designated for institutional use by UAB (see below), the Subaccount segment has meaning only within the context of each Account segment. This means, for example, that a Subaccount segment value of 123 could be designated to represent the first quarter of the fiscal year in one account string and could be designated to represent a specific faculty member's discretionary funds in another account string. Initially, all Subaccount segment values will default to 000.

UAB has designated certain blocks of Subaccount segment values for institutional purposes (specific values to be determined in the future). 000

Default value for all University Subaccount segments currently and will always be the Subaccount segment value for balance sheets

001 - 099

Reserved for Hospital-wide or University-wide purposes (i.e. within the Hospital, these Subaccount segment values have a consistent meaning regardless of the Account segment value; and within the University, these Subaccount segment values have a consistent meaning regardless of the Account segment value).

100 - 899

In the future, will be for optional end user purposes within a given Account segment value.

900 - 999

Reserved for institution-wide UAB purposes (i.e. these Subaccount segment values have a consistent meaning across UAB regardless of the Account segment value.

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General Ledger Account Structure: GL Subaccount (SUB) Segment

The second segment of the new GL accounting key is the Subaccount (SUB) segment. The Subaccount segment consists of three numeric digits and is used to further track activities, tasks or time periods within its specified account.


Subaccount reflects a breakdown of the Account activity and is, therefore, dependent on the Account segment. The Account segment of the GL accounting key, along with its dependent Subaccount segment, uniquely identifies an active GL income statement account string.

With the exception of some Subaccount segment values designated for institutional use by UAB (see below), the Subaccount segment has meaning only within the context of each Account segment. This means, for example, that a Subaccount segment value of 123 could be designated to represent the first quarter of the fiscal year in one account string and could be designated to represent a specific faculty member's discretionary funds in another account string. Initially, all Subaccount segment values will default to 000.

UAB has designated certain blocks of Subaccount segment values for institutional purposes (specific values to be determined in the future). 000

Default value for all University Subaccount segments currently and will always be the Subaccount segment value for balance sheets

001 - 099

Reserved for Hospital-wide or University-wide purposes (i.e. within the Hospital, these Subaccount segment values have a consistent meaning regardless of the Account segment value; and within the University, these Subaccount segment values have a consistent meaning regardless of the Account segment value).

100 - 899

In the future, will be for optional end user purposes within a given Account segment value.

900 - 999

Reserved for institution-wide UAB purposes (i.e. these Subaccount segment values have a consistent meaning across UAB regardless of the Account segment value.

Remember, in the Administrative Systems, all Subaccount segment values will default to 000. Subaccount segment values for balance sheets will always be 0s and how they will be used for income statements has not been fully explored.

Important Note:  Balance sheets are never maintained at a level any lower than the Account segment level.  That is, although revenue and expense can be tracked at the Subaccount level, balance sheets are never maintained at the Subaccount level.

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General Ledger Account Structure: GL Balancing (BAL) Segment

The third segment of the new GL accounting key is the Balancing (BAL) segment. The Balancing Segment segment consists of nine numeric digits and will track activities for which UAB may need a balance sheet, whether for internal or external purposes.


The Balancing segment is used to match revenues to expenses, track spending restrictions and designations, categorize UAB's net assets for external reporting, and to define the carry forward of year-end balances. The balance sheet represents a report grouping, with assets, liabilities, and net assets (also known as a fund balance, equity, retained earnings, etc.). Separate balance sheets are maintained to satisfy the need for adequate stewardship in accordance with the requirements of donors, trustees, granting agencies, or other internal management purposes. The balance sheets are aggregated for audited financial statement purposes. Listed below are examples of how the Balancing segment would be relevant:

  • To identify Hospital's General Operating Funds vs. School of Medicine's General Operating Funds
  • To separately account for a restricted gift
  • To separately account for an endowment
  • To separately account for the receipt and use of a grant sponsor's award

For accounting activity managed in the Oracle General Ledger, the Balancing segment of a GL income statement account string indicates the balance sheet to which that account string is related. For a GL balance sheet account string, the Balancing segment uniquely identifies the specific balance sheet. For income statements, the Balancing segment value is always identical to the Balancing segment value of the balance sheet account string to which it relates. The first two digits of the Balancing segment indicate the internal functional grouping.

General Operating 100000000 - 199999999

110000000 - 119999999

Central General Operating Accounts

120000000 - 129999999

Academic General Operating Accounts

130000000 - 139999999

Hospital General Operating Accounts

140000000 - 149999999

Auxiliaries General Operating Accounts

   

Other Unrestricted 200000000 - 299999999

210000000 - 219999999

Misc. Unrestricted Accounts

250000000 - 259999999

Unrestricted Endowment Earnings/Spending Accounts

290000000 - 299999999

Professional Service Funds

   

Student Loan 300000000 - 399999999

310000000 - 319999999

Federal Student Loan Funds

320000000 - 329999999

Nonfederal Student Loan Funds

   

Other Restricted 400000000 - 499999999

410000000 - 419999999

Restricted Gift Accounts

420000000 - 429999999

Misc. Restricted Accounts

450000000 - 459999999

Restricted Endowment Earnings/Spending Accounts

480000000 - 489999999

Grant-Related Income GAGL Recap Accounts

490000000 - 499999999

Grant Mandatory Cost Sharing GAGL Recap Accounts

   

Endowment 500000000 - 599999999

510000000 - 519999999

Pure Endowments

520000000 - 529999999

Term Endowments

530000000 - 539999999

Independent Quasi-Endowments

540000000 - 549999999

Quasi-End Related To Pure

550000000 - 559999999

Quasi-End Related To Term

560000000 - 569999999

Quasi-End Related To Independent Quasi

   

Grant 600000000 - 699999999

600000000 - 609999999

Federal Student Financial Aid Grants GAGL Recap Accounts

610000000 - 619999999

Federal Gov't Grants & Contracts GAGL Recap Accounts

620000000 - 629999999

State Gov't Grants & Contracts GAGL Recap Accounts

630000000 - 639999999

Local Gov't Grants & Contracts GAGL Recap Accounts

640000000 - 649999999

Private Grants & Contracts GAGL Recap Accounts

   

Annuity & Life Income 700000000 - 799999999

710000000 - 719999999

Annuity Funds

720000000 - 729999999

Life Income Funds

   

Plant 800000000 - 899999999

820000000 - 829999999

General B&E Reserves

830000000 - 839999999

Funded Depreciation Reserves

840000000 - 849999999

Trusteed Construction Funds

850000000 - 859999999

University Capital Plant Projects (Hospital 837001500)

880000000 - 889999999

Plant Asset Accounts

890000000 - 899999999

Plant Debt Accounts

   

Agency 900000000 - 999999999

900000000 - 909999999

Hospital Agency Funds

990000000 - 999999999

University Agency Funds

The remaining seven digits of the Balancing segment value must be the same as the Account segment if a one-to-one relationship exists between the income statement and balance sheet account strings. Also, both the Organization and Balancing segment values must match between the two account strings.

Example of a one-to-one
relationship

3100022.000.213100022.446001234.0000 - Income Statement

0000000.000.213100022.446001234.0000 - Balance Sheet

A many-to-one relationship exists when several income statements roll up to one balance sheet. If a many-to-one relationship exists between the income statements and balance sheet (such as in the case of a Dean's office balance sheet which includes several general operating funds accounts), then the remaining seven digits of the Balancing segment will not be the same as the Account segment.

Example of a many -to-one
relationship

1012345.000.110100000.114102000.000 - Income Statement

1987654.000.110100000.114102000.000 - Income Statement

0000000.000.110100000.114102000.000 - Balance Sheet

In limited cases, a balance sheet account string will have no related income statement account strings at all. This relationship is known as a "stand-alone balance sheet," and is not permitted except in the Central and Hospital general operating funds.

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General Ledger Account Structure: GL Organization (ORG) Segment

The fourth segment of the new GL accounting key is the Organization (ORG) segment. The Administrative Systems defines an Organization as a unit in which people operate, i.e. a department or division within the Hospital or University.


The ORG segment of the GL accounting key represents the organizational reporting structure of the University and Hospital. An Organization is further defined as a unit with a physical presence, an ongoing business objective, allocated funding, and fiscal oversight by a responsible manager.

The ORG segment consists of nine digits, structured as follows:

 

The two-digit prefix of the ORG segment indicates the primary unit. Below are examples of the two-digit prefixes:

Institutional 00 - 09:

01

General Administration

09

Athletics

Central Administration 10 - 19:

10

President

11

VPFAA

18

VPDAER

19

VPIT

Provost 20 - 59:

20 - 27

Provost General

28 - 29

Libraries

31

School of Medicine

32

School of Dentistry

33

School of Optometry

34

School of Nursing

35

School of Health Related Professions

37

School of Public Health

39

Academic Joint Departments

41

School of Arts & Humanities

42

School of Business

43

School of Education

44

School of Engineering

45

School of Natural Sciences & Mathematics

46

School of Social & Behavioral Sciences

51

Graduate School

Health System Administration 60 - 69

Hospital 70 - 79

Agency Funds 90 - 99:

90

Hospital Agency Funds

99

University Agency Funds

The first two digits of the ORG segment value indicate the primary unit. The first five digits indicate the Department. The first seven digits indicate the Division. All nine digits identify the new Subdivision.

 

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General Ledger Account Structure: GL Future (FUT) Segment

The fifth segment of the new GL accounting key is the Future (FUT) segment. The FUT segment has been reserved to meet any future requirements UAB may have that necessitate the expansion of the GL accounting key.


The benefit of having a future use segment will result in minimal work to be done if a subsequent event arises causing the need for an additional accounting key segment. The Future segment consists of four numeric digits and defaults to 0000

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General Ledger Account Structure: GL Object Code (OBJ) Segment

The sixth and final segment of the GL accounting key is the Object Code segment. The OBJ segment consists of seven numeric digits representing the natural account classification.


The Object Code categorizes the nature of dollars as a specific type of revenue, expense, asset, etc. The Oracle system requires that this be a segment in the accounting key.

UAB has blocked certain ranges of Object Code segment values to represent specific account classifications. The first digit of the Object Code segment specifies the major range and identifies the major financial reporting categories (Example: assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, etc.).

Object Code segment blocking:

  

Balance sheet

Assets

1000000 - 1999999

Liabilities

2000000 - 2999999

Balance

3000000 - 3999999

Income statement

Transfers In & Out

4000000 - 4999999

Revenues

6000000 - 6999999

Expenses

8000000 - 8999999

The first three digits are called the minor range and identify common grouping for object code summary reporting (Example: salaries and wages would be a range within expenses).

Object Code segment minor range blocking*:

Salaries & Wages

8100000 - 8109999

Supplies

8200000 - 8209999

Travel

8300000 - 8309999

Important Note: These are just a few examples. For the full list of official object codes, click here.

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Updated 02/09/2010 

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